Many converts find that they live too far from a Jewish community to be part of it, and online conversion seems like a very attractive option. There are ways to do it, but there are also limitations.

There are certain parts of the conversion that require some live element. Mikve (ritual immersion) must be done in an actual, physical, kosher mikve; keep in mind that many natural bodies of water, including the ocean, qualify as kosher mikves. Mikve also requires two witnesses (they generally stand outside the room and listen to the sounds–they do not actually watch you immerse); some rabbis will allow witnesses to view over zoom, while some will not.

Obviously the brit (circumcision) also is done in person. Keep in mind, too, that it must be done as a Jewish “brit”–i.e. with the intention of bringing you into the Jewish covenant. A purely medical circumcision in the hospital does not count, and you (or someone else) will need to draw a drop of blood (hatafat dam) from the place the circumcision was done. This, too, generally uses live witnesses, but you can find rabbis who will accept witnesses over livestream.

The bet din (rabbinical court of 3 rabbis who interview you) also is generally done live, but can be done over a videoconference.

The biggest objection is that being Jewish is being part of a community, and when you simply convert online, you do not experience being part of a living Jewish community. Perhaps for that reason, the Conservative movement, Orthodox movement, and State of Israel do not recognize purely online conversions. They require some experiences being part of a live community. The State of Israel produced guidelines for online conversions, which require 18 months of face to face online study, The Conservative movement requires both regular face-to-face coaching with the sponsoring rabbi, as well as regular visits to a in-person synagogue to experience worship as part of a synagogue.

If it is truly impossible to visit a synagogue (i.e. for health/mobility reasons), there are rabbis in the humanistic movement who will conduct an entirely online conversion. Although the humanistic movement does not believe in God, keep in mind that you do not need to be of the same approach as the sponsoring rabbi: they will support conversions for people of all approaches, although those conversions may not be recognized by all rabbis and synagogues.

Definitely, if you can be part of a local program, that is the best thing. If not, find a rabbi/program to study with, and be as much a part of Jewish community as you can.